Peptides are a type of organic compounds in which two or more amino acids are linked together by a particular type of chemical compound called peptide bond. You can purchase peptides online for all your research requirements. However when you buy online you must make sure of the quality of the peptides. Since even a slight fall in the purity of the peptides can lead to misleading results in your experiments. Now in this article we explain the bio-chemical properties of peptides in simple terms so as to help you understand it easily.
When two amino acids are linked together by a covalent bond, it results in the formation of a compound called as di-peptide. The word “di” means “Two”. This bond between two amino acids is formed as a result of condensation. One water molecule is removed from the alpha-carboxylic chain in one amino acid and another water molecule is removed from the alpha-amino chain of the other amino acid.
When three amino acids are joined together they form a Tri-peptide. Similarly four amino acids form a tetra-peptide, five amino acids form a penta-peptide, six amino acids form a hexa-peptide and so on. When a small number of amino acids are joined together it is known as oligo-peptide and when a large number of amino acids are linked together with a peptide bond, it is known as poly-peptide. Proteins are also a macro-molecule formed as a result of a chain of amino acids.
People often mistakenly use the term proteins and poly-peptides interchangeably. However there is a huge difference in the properties of both these compounds and one compound cannot be used in place of the other. When the number of amino acids linked together is less than 50 and the molecular weight of the compound is less than 10000 it is known as poly-peptides. Proteins on the other hand are made up of a huge number of amino acids linked together and weigh more.
Peptides are of different types based on their synthesis methods. Some of the common types of peptides are:
Ribosomal peptides: They are generated from the translation of mRNA (Ribo Nucleic Acid). They function as hormones and also pass signals between molecules at the cellular level.
Non-Ribosomal Peptides: They are synthesized as a result of enzymes present in the peptide itself rather than in the ribosome. Glutathione is the most common form of non-ribosomal peptide and it is a major component of anti-oxidants.
Peptone: It is derived from milk proteins digested by animals and is used as the base for growing bacteria and fungi.
Milk Peptide: This peptide is formed as a result of the breaking up of milk proteins be the action of lactobacilli. This process occurs during the fermentation of milk.
Peptides are naturally occurring as well as produced by artificial synthesis. Natural peptides are present in every living cell and are the basis for several bio-chemical functions. Peptides are an important component in the field of micro-biology and several studies are being done on peptides worldwide to understand their functions and properties.